The Genetic Bonds Between Kurds and Jews

“The Genetic Bonds Between Kurds and Jews”

Study finds close genetic connection between Jews, Kurds

The people closest to the Jews from a genetic point of view may be the Kurds, according to results of a new study at the Hebrew University.


by Kevin Alan Brook

Kurds are the Closest Relatives of Jews

In 2001, a team of Israeli, German, and Indian scientists discovered that the majority of Jews around the world are closely related to the Kurdish people — more closely than they are to the Semitic-speaking Arabs or any other population that was tested. The researchers sampled a total of 526 Y-chromosomes from 6 populations (Kurdish Jews, Kurdish Muslims, Palestinian Arabs, Sephardic Jews, Ashkenazic Jews, and Bedouin from southern Israel) and added extra data on 1321 persons from 12 populations (including Russians, Belarusians, Poles, Berbers, Portuguese, Spaniards, Arabs, Armenians, and Anatolian Turks). Most of the 95 Kurdish Muslim test subjects came from northern Iraq. Ashkenazic Jews have ancestors who lived in central and eastern Europe, while Sephardic Jews have ancestors from southwestern Europe, northern Africa, and the Middle East. The Kurdish Jews and Sephardic Jews were found to be very close to each other. Both of these Jewish populations differed somewhat from Ashkenazic Jews, who mixed with European peoples during their diaspora. The researchers suggested that the approximately 12.7 percent of Ashkenazic Jews who have the Eu 19 chromosomes — which are found among between 54 and 60 percent of Eastern European Christians — descend paternally from eastern Europeans (such as Slavs) or Khazars. But the majority of Ashkenazic Jews, who possess Eu 9 and other chromosomes, descend paternally from Judeans who lived in Israel two thousand years ago. In the article in the November 2001 issue of The American Journal of Human Genetics, Ariella Oppenheim of the Hebrew University of Israel wrote that this new study revealed that Jews have a closer genetic relationship to populations in the northern Mediterranean (Kurds, Anatolian Turks, and Armenians) than to populations in the southern Mediterranean (Arabs and Bedouins).

A previous study by Ariella Oppenheim and her colleagues, published in Human Genetics in December 2000, showed that about 70 percent of Jewish paternal ancestries and about 82 percent of Palestinian Arabs share the same chromosomal pool. The geneticists asserted that this might support the claim that Palestinian Arabs descend in part from Judeans who converted to Islam. With their closer relationship to Jews, the Palestinian Arabs are distinctive from other Arab groups, such as Syrians, Lebanese, Saudis, and Iraqis, who have less of a connection to Jews.

A study by Michael Hammer et al., published in PNAS in June 2000, had identified a genetic connection between Arabs (especially Syrians and Palestinians) and Jews, but had not tested Kurds, so it was less complete.

Many Kurds have the “Jewish” Cohen Modal Haplotype

In the 1990s, a team of scientists (including the geneticist Michael Hammer, the nephrologist Karl Skorecki, and their colleagues in England) discovered the existence of a haplotype which they termed the “Cohen modal haplotype” (abbreviated as CMH). Cohen is the Hebrew word for “priest”, and designates descendants of Judean priests from two thousand years ago. Initial research indicated that while only about 3 percent of general Jews have this haplotype, 45 percent of Ashkenazic Cohens have it, while 56 percent of Sephardic Cohens have it. David Goldstein, an evolutionary geneticist at Oxford University, said: “It looks like this chromosomal type was a constituent of the ancestral Hebrew population.” Some Jewish rabbis used the Cohen study to argue that all Cohens with the CMH had descended from Aaron, a High Priest who lived about 3500 years ago, as the Torah claimed. Shortly after, it was determined that 53 percent of the Buba clan of the Lemba people of southern Africa have the CMH, compared to 9 percent of non-Buba Lembas. The Lembas claim descent from ancient Israelites, and they follow certain Jewish practices such as circumcision and refraining from eating pork, and for many geneticists and historians the genetic evidence seemed to verify their claim.

However, it soon became apparent that the CMH is not specific to Jews or descendants of Jews. In a 1998 article in Science News, Dr. Skorecki indicated (in an interview) that some non-Jews also possess the Cohen markers, and that the markers are therefore not “unique or special”. The CMH is very common among Iraqi Kurds, according to a 1999 study by C. Brinkmann et al. And in her 2001 article, Oppenheim wrote: “The dominant haplotype of the Muslim Kurds (haplotype 114) was only one microsatellite-mutation step apart from the CMH…” (Oppenheim 2001, page 1100). Furthermore, the CMH is also found among some Armenians, according to Dr. Levon Yepiskoposyan (Head of the Institute of Man in Yerevan, Armenia), who has studied genetics for many years. Dr. Avshalom Zoossmann-Diskin wrote: “The suggestion that the ‘Cohen modal haplotype’ is a signature haplotype for the ancient Hebrew population is also not supported by data from other populations.” (Zoossmann-Diskin 2000, page 156).

In short, the CMH is a genetic marker from the northern Middle East which is not unique to Jews. However, its existence among many Kurds and Armenians, as well as some Italians and Hungarians, would seem to support the overall contention that Kurds and Armenians are the close relatives of modern Jews and that the majority of today’s Jews have paternal ancestry from the northeastern Mediterranean region.

The Jewish Kingdom of Adiabene in Ancient Kurdistan

In ancient times, the royal house of Adiabene and some of the common people of Adiabene converted to Judaism. The capital city of Adiabene was Arbela (known today by Arabs as Irbil and by Kurds as Hawler). King Izates became closely attached to his new faith, and sent his sons to study Hebrew and Jewish customs in Jerusalem. His successor to the throne was his brother Monobazos II, who also adopted Judaism. In her 2001 study, Oppenheim references the kingdom of Adiabene, but suggests that while Adiabene’s conversion to Judaism “resulted in the assimilation of non-Jews into the community… This recorded conversion does not appear to have had a considerable effect on the Y chromosome pool of the Kurdish Jews.” (Oppenheim 2001, page 1103). Some of the Jewish Adiabenians may have eventually converted to Christianity.


Research has just begun into the ancient ties between Kurds and Jews. It would be interesting to see if the various Jewish groups have as strong a family tie to Kurds in the maternal lineages as they do in the paternal lineages. Preliminary studies indicate that Jewish populations in eastern Europe and Yemen have maternal origins that contain much more non-Israelite ancestry than their paternal origins. Despite this admixture with other groups, the Jewish Judean people ultimately began their existence in an area within or nearby Kurdistan, prior to migrating southwest to Israel. This exciting research showing that Kurds and Jews may have shared common fathers several millennia ago should, hopefully, encourage both Kurds and Jews to explore each others’ cultures and to maintain the friendship that Kurds and Jews enjoyed in northern Iraq in recent times (as chronicled in Michael Rubin’s recent article “The Other Iraq”). As Rubin indicates, the Kurdish leader Mullah Mustafa Barzani once visited Israel and met with Israeli government officials. Rubin refers to the Iraqi Kurds’ “special affinity for Israel” and writes that “In the safe haven of Iraqi Kurdistan, the Jews and Israel are remembered fondly, if increasingly vaguely.” Let us hope that this relationship can be renewed and strengthened.


Brinkmann, C., et al. “Human Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in a Kurdish population sample.” International Journal of Legal Medicine 112 (1999): 181-183.

Brook, Kevin A. The Jews of Khazaria. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson, 1999.

Hammer, Michael F., et al. “Y Chromosomes of Jewish Priests.” Nature 385 (January 2, 1997): 32.

Hammer, Michael F., et al. “Jewish and Middle Eastern non-Jewish Populations Share a Common Pool of Y-chromosome Biallelic Haplotypes.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA (PNAS) 97:12 (June 6, 2000): 6769-6774.

Oppenheim, Ariella, et al. “High-resolution Y chromosome haplotypes of Israeli and Palestinian Arabs reveal geographic substructure and substantial overlap with haplotypes of Jews.” Human Genetics 107(6) (December 2000): 630-641.

Oppenheim, Ariella, et al. “The Y Chromosome Pool of Jews as Part of the Genetic Landscape of the Middle East.” The American Journal of Human Genetics 69:5 (November 2001): 1095-1112.

Rubin, Michael. “The Other Iraq.” Jerusalem Report (December 31, 2001).

Siegel, Judy. “Genetic evidence links Jews to their ancient tribe.” Jerusalem Post (November 20, 2001).

Thomas, Mark G., et al. “Y Chromosomes Traveling South: the Cohen Modal Haplotype and the Origins of the Lemba — the ‘Black Jews of Southern Africa’.” American Journal of Human Genetics 66:2 (February 2000): 674-686.

Traubman, Tamara. “Study finds close genetic connection between Jews, Kurds.” Ha’aretz (November 21, 2001).

Travis, J. “The Priests’ Chromosome? DNA analysis supports the biblical story of the Jewish priesthood.” Science News 154:14 (October 3, 1998): 218.

Zoossmann-Diskin, Avshalom. “Are today’s Jewish priests descended from the old ones?” HOMO: Journal of Comparative Human Biology 51:2-3 (2000): 156-162.

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God vs. Satan

God vs. Satan in Judaism

by Jeremy C Bradley, Demand Media

While Christianity often espouses a concept of a divine God versus a fallen angel called Lucifer or Satan, Judaism has no such concept. No angel, including Satan, in Jewish scripture opposes God. The word “Satan” in the Torah – the Hebrew Bible – literally means “the challenger.” Satan is often seen as an angel sent by God to test human beings’ commitment to his commands. A related concept is the HaSatan – “the hinderer” – a term that represents the soul struggling with whether to do God’s will or yield to sin.

Good and Bad Inclinations

One can understand the relationship between God and Satan in the Torah by thinking of the HaSatan as an adversary embedded by God in the soul of every human being. Almost like a conscience, the adversary is the inclination to do evil. Judaism calls this inclination the “yetzer hara.” Rather than a physical being, such as the Satan of Christianity, the yetzer hara is a metaphor for mankind’s sinful nature. Likewise, Jewish texts teach that there is also an inclination in people to want to do good. This is called the “yetzer hatov,” and it develops as a person matures from childhood to young adulthood.

Biblical References to Satan

While the concept of Satan is typically thought of metaphorically in Judaism, the physical essence of a Satan-like figure does appear once in the Torah. In the Book of Job, Satan is depicted as an angel who tests the righteousness of Job. This man enjoys a life full of riches and success. Satan asks God to let him tempt Job to ascertain the strength of Job’s faith. Job’s children die, he loses all his money and he becomes gravely ill, but still he does not turn his back on God. The Jewish faith interprets this concept of Satan in Job as the temptation to want to forsake God even when Job’s life is turned upside down.

Temptation vs. Original Sin

The Christian concept of original sin – that humans are born sinners in need of God’s salvation – is an alien concept in Judaism. Original sin is linked to Satan because Christians see Satan as the ultimate evil, using sin to destroy God’s creation. On the contrary, Jewish scripture teaches that humans are born with a pure soul. Contrary to popular belief, the Bible does not mention Satan in physical form – nor does it even use the word “Satan” – in the context of a serpent tempting Eve in the Garden of Eden. Jews interpret this to mean that Adam and Eve’s sin was not obeying God’s commandment to not eat the fruit. Because they gave into the temptation, humans must grapple with yetzer hara.

Gan Eden, Gehinnom and The World to Come

Satan is also often thought of in a Christian context as the guardian of hell, the afterlife for unrepentant sinners. Since Satan is not seen as a physical being in Judaism, this concept of hell does not exist. The Torah mentions two possible options in the afterlife – Gan Eden and the World to Come. Truly faithful Jews will be rewarded with a place in Gan Eden upon their death. Those who have been less than completely righteous go to a place called Gehinnom, a Jewish version of purgatory where the soul is purified. After some time in Gehinnom – but never more than 11 months – the soul may move on to Gan Eden. The souls of truly evil people are destroyed by God, but they are not sent to any sort of “hell.” The World to Come is a term used by Jews to refer to the state of earth after the Messiah appears. As “heaven on earth,” the World to Come is a peaceful and prosperous place for the faithful.


We are told that God came to dwell on the earth as Jesus. Can God dwell on the earth? I found this interesting:
“But will God indeed dwell on the earth? Behold the heaven and the heaven of heavens cannot contain You; much less this temple that I have erected.”
1 Kings 8:27

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The actual prophecies about the Jewish Moshiach


LOOK CLOSER at this picture… Christianity and Messianic Judaism(as well as other religions) are all claiming that their messiah is THE Messiah sent from HaShem. If this is true, then HaShem is not the Creator we all think He Is. What kind of Creator has such a bad memory that He would do things out of order, put things in the wrong place(like in the picture) and then say “you’re blind” when you start spotting all the errors? Who would set up “rules for assembly” and then NOT follow His Own Instructions? NOT HaShem!!!

Please understand that if the “final product” is NOT according to The Masters Design(like in this picture), it must be recalled and NOT put into circulation.

NOTE: “HaShem” = G-d/Adonai/ praise His Name (just in case some are not familiar with the term) ~ wil’Liam Hall

[Picture borrowed]

The actual prophecies about the Jewish Moshiach

The actual prophecies about the Jewish Moshiach are focused on the fulfilled promises that will mark the era and age of his coming not on the Moshiach himself as his role is in leading people into the proper worship and glorification of G-d alone .
* The Sanhedrin will be re-established (Isaiah 1:26) 
* Once he is king, leaders of other nations will look to him for guidance. (Isaiah 2:4)
* The whole world will worship the One G-d of Y’srael (Isaiah 2:17)
* He will be descended from King David (Isaiah 11:1) via King Solomon (1 Chron. 22:8-10)
* The Moshiach will be a man of this world, an observant Jew with “fear of G-d” (Isaiah 11:2)
*****In other words – this must all be accomplished in a human lifetime*****
* Evil and tyranny will not be able to stand before his leadership (Isaiah 11:4)
* Knowledge of G-d will fill the world (Isaiah 11:9)
* He will include and attract people from all cultures and nations (Isaiah 11:10)
* All Israelites will be returned to their homeland (Isaiah 11:12)
* Death will be swallowed up forever (Isaiah 25:8)
* There will be no more hunger or illness, and death will cease (Isaiah 25:8)
* All of the dead will rise again (Isaiah 26:19)
* The Jewish people will experience eternal joy and gladness (Isaiah 51:11)
* He will be a messenger of peace (Isaiah 52:7)
* Nations will end up recognizing the wrongs they did to Israel (Isaiah 52:13-53:5)
* The peoples of the world will turn to the Jews for spiritual guidance (Zechariah 8:23)
* The ruined cities of Y’srael will be restored (Ezekiel 16:55)
* Weapons of war will be destroyed (Ezekiel 39:9)
* The Temple will be rebuilt (Ezekiel 40) resuming many of the suspended mitzvot
* He will then perfect the entire world to serve G-d together (Zephaniah 3:9)
* Jews will know the Torah without Study (Jeremiah 31:33)
* He will give you all the desires of your heart (Psalms 37:4)
* He will take the barren land and make it abundant and fruitful (Isaiah 51:3, Amos 9:13-15, Ezekiel 36:29-30, Isaiah 11:6-9).

By Elijah Levi Brown ­ 

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The ONLY way to fit Jesus/Yeshua into the TaNaCH

Who were the (true) prophets and prophetesses of Israel?

What distinguished them from the others?

“While the gift of prophecy included an ability to foretell the future, a prophet was far more than a person with that capability. A prophet was a spokesperson for God, a person ostensibly “chosen” by Him to speak to people on His behalf and convey a message or teaching. [True] prophets were role models of holiness, scholarship, and closeness to God, setting the standards for the entire community. Moreover, the primary job of a prophet was not to foretell the future, but to arouse the people and the government to repentance and observance. In the process of executing their primary mission, the prophets often resorted to the description of future events – some in the near future, some in the intermediate future, and some in the distant (messianic era) future.”

One of the central themes of Biblical prophecy is the promise of a future age of perfection characterized by universal peace and recognition of God. (Isaiah 2:1-4; Zephaniah 3:9; Hosea 2:20-22; Amos 9:13-15; Isaiah 32:15-18, 60:15-18; Micah 4:1-4; Zechariah 8:23, 14:9; Jeremiah 31:33-34)

In the New Testament Jsus is presented as a prophet. Crowds identified him as “Jsus the prophet” (Matthew 21:11). He spoke of himself as a prophet: “No prophet is accepted in his own native place” (Luke 4:24). Jsus is called the Prince of Peace.
This is the so called prince of peace? Mat 10:34-35 Think not that I am come to send peace on earth: I came not to send peace, but a sword. For I am come to set a man at variance against his father, and the daughter against her mother, and the daughter in law against her mother in law.

How can Elijah who you say is John come to bring fathers back to their sons, but Jsus does the complete opposite?

Mal 4:4-6 Remember ye the law of Moses My servant, which I commanded unto him in Horeb for all Israel, even statutes and ordinances. Behold, I will send you Elijah the prophet before the coming of the great and terrible day of the LORD. And he shall turn the heart of the fathers to the children, and the heart of the children to their fathers; lest I come and smite the land with utter destruction.

“I came not to send peace, but a sword.”? Luk 12:51  Think ye that I am come to give peace in the earth? I tell you, Nay; but rather division:

But those mine enemies, which would not that I should reign over them, bring hither, and slay them before me. Luk 19:27  2000 years of Jewish Persecution and AntiSemitism has it’s roots in the words of Jsus…the prince of peace?

Here’s a few observations by some friends of mine.

We are told that God speaks in types and shadows and we must find those hidden throughout Scripture. However, I found this interesting:

“Not in secret did I speak, in a place of a land of darkness; I did not say to the seed of Jacob, Seek Me, in vain; I am YHVH, Who speaks righteousness, declares things that are right.”
Isaiah 45:19

We are told that God came as a human in Jesus to change the way things were to something better. However, I found this interesting:

God is not man to be capricious, Or mortal to change His mind. Would He speak and not act, Promise and not fulfill?
Numbers 23:19

Moreover, the Glory of Israel does not deceive or change His mind, for He is not human that He should change His mind.”
1 Samuel 15:29  ~Wendy Banuelos

“It is clear from the New Testament that they all expected the Second Coming in their own lifetime. And, worse still, they had a reason, and one which you will find very embarrassing. Their Master had told them so. He shared, and indeed created, their delusion. He said in so many words, ‘this generation shall not pass till all these things be done.’ And he was wrong. He clearly knew no more about the end of the world than anyone else.

“It is certainly the most embarrassing verse in the Bible. Yet how teasing, also, that within fourteen words of it should come the statement “But of that day and that hour knoweth no man, no, not the angels which are in heaven, neither the Son, but the Father.” The one exhibition of error and the one confession of ignorance grow side by side. … The evangelists have the first great characteristic of honest witnesses: they mention facts which are, at first sight, damaging to their main contention.

“… The answer of the theologians is that the God-Man was omniscient as God, and ignorant as Man. This, no doubt, is true, though it cannot be imagined. Nor indeed can the unconsciousness of Christ in sleep be imagined, not the twilight of reason in his infancy; still less his merely organic life in his mother’s womb.” – C. S. Lewis, in The World’s Last Night, pages 98-99

We are told that God came to dwell on the earth as Jesus. Can God dwell on the earth? I found this interesting:

“But will God indeed dwell on the earth? Behold the heaven and the heaven of heavens cannot contain You; much less this temple that I have erected.” 1 Kings 8:27

The heaven, even the heavens, are HaShem’s: but the earth hath he given to the children of men.

Ps 115:16

Please read this and consider what it says:

Ezekiel 33:11-16
“Say to them: As I live, says YHVH God, I do not wish for the death of the wicked, but for the wicked to repent of his way so that he may live. Repent, repent of your evil ways, for why should you die, O house of Israel!
And you, son of man, say to the members of your people: The righteousness of the righteous will not save him on the day of his transgression, and the wickedness of the wicked-he will not stumble upon it on the day of his repentance of his wickedness, and a righteous man cannot live with it on the day of his sinning.
When I say of the righteous that he will surely live, and he relied on his righteousness and committed injustice, none of his righteous deeds will be remembered, and for the injustices which he committed he shall die.
And when I say of the wicked man, “You shall surely die,” and he repents of his sin and performs justice and righteousness,
The wicked man will return the pledge, he will repay the theft; in the statutes of life he walked, not to commit injustice-he will surely live, he will not die.
All his sins that he sinned will not be remembered for him: he performed justice and righteousness; he will surely live.”

Does this speak of the shedding of blood to be forgiven? Does this speak of another person paying for your sins? ~Wendy Banuelos

Deu 24:16  The fathers shall not be put to death for the children, neither shall the children be put to death for the fathers; every man shall be put to death for his own sin.

The prophets never instruct the Jews to worship any crucified messiah or demigod; nor does Scripture suggest that an innocent man could die as an atonement for the sins of the wicked. Such a message is utterly antithetical to the teachings of the Jewish Scriptures. Rather, it is the prayers of the sinner that would become as bulls of the sin offerings.

King Solomon echoes this sentiment as well.

In I Kings 8:46-50, King Solomon delivers a startling prophetic message as he inaugurates the newly constructed first Temple. In his inauguration sermon, King Solomon forewarns that one day the Jewish people would be driven out of the land of Israel, and banished to the land of their enemies, near and far. During their exile, many would fervently desire to repent of their sins. King Solomon then declares that they are to face Jerusalem from their diaspora, confess their sins, “and God will hear their prayers in heaven, and forgive them for all their transgressions.”

If they sin against You, for there is no man who does not sin, and You will be angry with them, and deliver them to the enemy, and their captors will carry them away captive to the land of the enemy, far or near. And they shall bethink themselves 47in the land where they were carried captive, and repent, and make supplication to You in the land of their captors, saying,‘We have sinned, and have done perversely, we have committed wickedness.’ 48And they shall return to You with all their heart, and with all their soul, in the land of their enemies, who led them away captive, and pray to You toward their land, which You gave to their fathers, the city You have chosen, and the house which I have built for Your name. 49And You shall hear their prayer and their supplication in heaven, in Your dwelling place, and maintain their cause. 50And forgive Your people for what they have sinned against You, and all their transgressions that they have transgressed against You…

(I Kings 8:46-50)

There was no mention of a cross or a dead messiah in King Solomon’s prophetic message. Only the contrite and repentant prayer of the remorseful sinner can bring about a complete atonement. Although King Solomon’s timeless message stands out as a theological impossibility in Christian terms, it remains the warm, centerpiece of the God’s system of atonement throughout his long and bitter exile. [1]

ReGARDLESS of what you “believe”, Passover had NOTHING to do with “sin”…

ReGARDLESS of what you “believe”, the “Lamb that takes away the SINS OF THE WORLD” was referring to the “Passover Lamb”…[the author was mistakenly trying to connect the idea of the skapegoat with Passover]

ReGARDLESS of what you “believe”, the only time “sin was taken away in the OT was on Yom Kippur…NOT Passover![see skapegoat]

ReGARDLESS of what you “believe”, there is no information OUTSIDE the new testament about jsus performing miracles.

ReGARDLESS of what you “believe”, the Prophets never spoke about a “virgin” birth!

ReGARDLESS of what you “believe”, the Prophets did not teach that the Messiah would die, but rather, he would reign as a physical king!

ReGARDLESS of what you “believe”, Paul never mentioned the virgin birth.

ReGARDLESS of what you “believe”, withOUT a “virgin” birth, jsus cannot be “divine”.

ReGARDLESS of what you “believe”, without a TRACEable bloodline TO King Solomon, jsus can NOT be the Messiah.

ReGARDLESS of what you “believe”, the Hebrew Scriptures do not mention a SECOND coming of the Messiah.

ReGARDLESS of what you “believe”, The gospel of Mark has no account of the birth of Jesus…something that is SO IMPORTANT!

ReGARDLESS of what you “believe”, We have no eyewitness accounts of the virgin birth, no doctor confirmations, no DNA samples .

ReGARDLESS of what you “believe”, The claims of Jesus’ birth are no different from any of the other virgin birth legends.

ReGARDLESS of what you “believe”, OTHER VIRGIN BIRTH CLAIMS: Plato, Empedocles, Hercules, Pythagoras, Alexander the Great & Caesar Augustus.

ReGARDLESS of what you “believe”, IF the virgin birth WAS to be a “sign”[as stated in Isaiah], why was it “hidden”?!

ReGARDLESS of what you “believe”, there is no information OUTSIDE the new testament about jsus being resurrected.

ReGARDLESS of what you “believe”, jsus was on the cross for only 3 hours…others have SURVIVED the cross after 2 full “days”!

ReGARDLESS of what you “believe”, there is no “proof” that jsus actually died to begin with.

ReGARDLESS of what you “believe”, your “belief” in Jsus as the Messiah, is fabricated from lies and misconceptions.

ReGARDLESS of what you “believe”, It’s Not Important “What YOU Believe”! It’s only important what G-D believes!  ~ wil’Liam Hall

A Great Eye-Opening Truth about Jesus/Yeshua


Just because you can fit a square object through a round hole does not mean that the right piece was used, even if you MAKE it fit. It just simply does NOT work that way! Sadly, that’s the ONLY way to fit Jesus/Yeshua into this picture.

Just being honest.


By wil’Liam Hall

If you’re have a difficult time wrapping your mind around the fact, Jesus was not the Jewish Messiah, I give you the Last and Final Sacrifice Takes The Ten Count.



Christian missionaries claim that those who do not accept Jesus as their lord and

savior, which includes the Jewish people, are doomed to burn in “hell” because

they cannot have their sins forgiven by God. This claim is rationalized with the

allegation that, in Biblical times, the only way to bring about the remission of sins

was via the blood of a certain animal. This animal had to be brought to the priest

to be slaughtered at the altar in the Sanctuary, first while in the portable

Sanctuary and later in the Temple, as a sacrificial offering. According to this

claim, since there has been no Temple standing in Jerusalem since the year 70

C.E., valid sacrificial offerings can no longer be made and, therefore, the only

way for Jews to have their sins forgiven is through the blood shed by Jesus in his

“sacrificial” death on the cross. In other words, the claim is that the blood of

Jesus, who was allegedly sacrificed by God (the “Father”) as a demonstration of

his great love for mankind,

has once and for all removed the stain of “Original

Sin” from those who follow Jesus (the “Son”). This act of love by God allegedly

made Jesus the “last and final sacrifice” forever.

There are two main aspects to the claim that Jesus was “the last and final

sacrifice”. The first concerns the suitability of Jesus and his death as a sacrificial

offering for the remission of sins. The second aspect, which was investigated in

another essay, concerns the need for blood in the atonement process.

This essay examines the suitability of Jesus and the manner in which he died as

a sacrificial offering for the remission of sins.


The process for testing this claim by Christian missionaries consists of

contrasting the requirements concerning sacrificial offerings, as specified in the

Hebrew Bible, against the accounts in the New Testament that describe the

death of Jesus on the cross as a sacrificial offering. As part of this analysis, it is

important to bear in mind the following two conditions that existed during the life

of Jesus, at the time of his death, and for several decades following his death:

1. The Second Temple was still standing in Jerusalem

2. The Hebrew Bible was the Scripture in force

The salient issue to be addressed, and answered, is:

According to the requirements set forth in the Hebrew Bible, was Jesus a valid sacrificial

offering, and was his death by crucifixion an acceptable process, for remission of sins?

The analytical phase of the testing process identifies ten elements for which the

respective accounts in the New Testament are compared with the specifications

provided in the Hebrew Bible, primarily in the Torah.


According to the accounts in the New Testament, Jesus was crucified by

Roman soldiers:

John 19:18,23(KJV) – (18) Where they crucified him, and two other with him, on either

side one, and Jesus in the midst.

(23) Then the soldiers, when they had crucified Jesus, took his garments, and made

four parts, to every soldier a part; and also his coat: now the coat was without seam,

woven from the top throughout. [See also Matthew 27:35; Mark 15:24; Luke 23:33.]

According to the Levitical Law of Sacrifice in the Torah, the animal brought as

a sin sacrifice had to be slaughtered by the person who offered it:

Leviticus 4:27-29 – (27) And if any one person from among the common people sins

unwittingly, by performing one of the commandments of the Lord which may not be

done, and incurs guilt; (28) Or if his sin, which he has committed, is made known to

him, then he shall bring his sacrifice, an unblemished female goat, for his sin which he

has sinned. (29) And he shall lay his hand upon the head of the sin offering, and he

shall slaughter the sin offering in the place of the burnt offering.


According to the Levitical Law of Sacrifice in the Torah, some of the blood of

the (sin) sacrifice had to be rubbed by the priest with his finger on the horns of

the altar in the Temple, and the rest had to be poured out at the base of the

sacrificial altar. The fat of the sacrifice had to be removed and burnt:

Leviticus 4:30-31 – (30) And the priest shall take some of its blood with his finger, and

put [it] upon the horns of the altar [used] for the burnt offering; and [then] he shall

pour out all of [the rest of] its blood at the base of the altar. (31) And he shall remove

all of its fat, as was removed the fat from the sacrificial peace offerings; and the priest

shall burn it upon the altar for a pleasant fragrance to the Lord; and [thus] shall the

priest make an atonement for him, and he shall be forgiven.

 The New Testament is silent on what was done with the blood of Jesus and

with the fat of his body.


According to the accounts in the New Testament, Jesus was beaten,

whipped, and dragged on the ground before being crucified:

Matthew 26:67(KJV) – Then did they spit in his face, and buffeted him; and others

smote him with the palms of their hands, [See also Mark 14:65; Luke 22:63; John 18:22.]

Matthew 27:26,30-31(KJV) – (26)Then released he Barabbas unto them: and when he

had scourged Jesus, he delivered him to be crucified.

(30) And they spit upon him, and took the reed, and smote him on the head. (31) And

after that they had mocked him, they took the robe off from him, and put his own

raiment on him, and led him away to crucify him. [See also Mark 15:15-20; John 19:1-3.]

According to the Torah, a sacrificial animal had to be without any physical

defects or blemishes:

Deuteronomy 17:1 – You shall not sacrifice to the Lord your God an ox or a sheep that

has in it a blemish or any bad thing, for that is an abomination to the Lord, your God.

Sidebar Note: As a born Jew, Jesus was circumcised on the eighth day following

his birth, a ritual that leaves a scar (Genesis 17:10-13; the “sign of the covenant”).

The circumcision of Jesus is mentioned in the New Testament (Luke 2:21), yet Paul

refers to circumcision as being tantamount to mutilation (Galatians 5:11-12;

Philippians 3:2).


 According to the New Testament, Jesus was “the Lamb of God” whose bones

may not be broken [a reference to the Paschal Lamb of Exodus 12:46 and

Numbers 9:12]:

John 1:29(KJV) – The next day John seeth Jesus coming unto him, and saith, Behold

the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world.

John 19:36(KJV) – For these things were done, that the scripture should be fulfilled, A

bone of him shall not be broken.

 According to the Torah, the Paschal Lamb was not offered for the removal of

sins. Rather, it was a festive, or commemorative, offering. Yom Kippur (the

Day of Atonement) would have been a more appropriate time for a sin


Numbers 29:11 – One young male goat for a sin offering, beside the sin offering of

atonement, and the continual burnt offering, and its meal offering, and their drink

offerings. [Yom Kippur – Individual sin offering]

Leviticus 16:15 – He shall then slaughter the he goat of the people’s sin offering and

bring its blood inside the dividing curtain, and he shall do with its blood as he did with

the blood of the bull and sprinkle it upon the cover of the ark, and before the cover of

the ark. [Yom Kippur – Communal sin offering]


 According to the Torah, the Paschal Lamb had to be slaughtered and its

blood used to place markings on the side-posts and lintels of the entrances to

the dwelling. Moreover, the meat had to be roasted and eaten, and whatever

was not consumed by the time the Israelites were to leave their homes, had

to be burnt and destroyed:

Exodus 12:6-10 – (6) And you shall keep it under watch until the fourteenth day of this

month; and the entire congregation of the community of Israel shall slaughter it at

dusk. (7) And they shall take [some] of its blood, and place it on the two doorposts and

on the lintel, on the houses in which they will eat it. (8) And they shall eat the meat in

that night, roasted over fire, and [with] unleavened bread; with bitter herbs they shall

eat it. (9) You shall not eat from it raw, nor boiled in water; but roasted over fire, its

head with its legs, and with its inner parts. (10) And you shall not leave any of it until

morning; and that which left over until the morning you shall burn in the fire.

 According to the accounts in the New Testament this was not done with

Jesus after his death. In fact, Jesus was buried.

Matthew 27:57-60(KJV) – (57) When the even was come, there came a rich man of

Arimathaea, named Joseph, who also himself was Jesus’ disciple: (58) He went to

Pilate, and begged the body of Jesus. Then Pilate commanded the body to be

delivered. (59) And when Joseph had taken the body, he wrapped it in a clean linen

cloth, (60) And laid it in his own new tomb, which he had hewn out in the rock: and he

rolled a great stone to the door of the sepulchre, and departed. [See also Mark 15:42-46;

Luke 23:50-53; John 19:38-42.]


 According to the New Testament, the death of Jesus was a sacrificial offering

that expiated the sins of mankind for all times:

Hebrews 10:10,18(KJV) – (10) By the which will we are sanctified through the offering

of the body of Jesus Christ once for all.

(18) Now where remission of these is, there is no more offering for sin. [See also

Romans 6:10; Hebrews 9:12.]

 According to the Torah, the Passover (sin) sacrifice, a male-goat, had to be

offered on an individual (per household) basis, not as a communal offering:

Numbers 28:22 – And one young male goat for a sin offering, to make atonement for



 According to the New Testament, the death and blood of Jesus took care of

(almost) all sins:

Hebrews 9:22(KJV) – And almost all things are by the law purged with blood; and

without shedding of blood is no remission.

 According to the Levitical Law of Sacrifice in the Torah, the sacrificial sin

offering brought atonement only for unintentional sins, except as noted in

Leviticus 5:1-6, 20-26[Leviticus 5:1-6, 6:1-7 in Christian Bibles]:

Numbers 15:27-31 – (27) And if a person sins inadvertently, then he shall offer a female

goat in its first year as a sin offering. (28) And the priest shall atone for the erring

person who sinned inadvertently before the Lord in order to make atonement on his

behalf; and it shall be forgiven him. (29) For the native born of the children of Israel

and the stranger who resides among them, one law shall apply to him who sins

inadvertently. (30) And the person who does anything presumptuously, whether he is a

native born or a stranger, that person blasphemes the Lord; and that person shall be

cut off from among his people. (31) Because he has scorned the word of the Lord, and

has violated his commandment; that person shall surely be cut off, for his iniquity is

upon him.


 According to the New Testament, the death of Jesus brought about the

remission of sins yet uncommitted, and of sins of those yet to be born:

Hebrews 10:18(KJV) – Now where remission of these is, there is no more offering for


 According to the Levitical Law of Sacrifice in the Torah, sacrifices could bring

atonement only for sins committed prior to the offering of the sacrifice. No

sacrifice was provided for the atonement of sins committed after the sacrifice

was offered and, thus, no sacrifice can bring atonement for sins of people

born after it was offered. This includes both טּאתָחַ (haTAT)], a sin offering,

described in Leviticus 4:1-5:13, and שׁםָאָ (aSHAM), a guilt offering,

described in Leviticus 5:14-26. Had there been, among the listed sacrifices,

even one kind of sin or guilt offering that could bring atonement for future

sins, the person who would have offered that particular sacrifice would not

have had to do so again for the rest of his life. Moreover, Yom Kippur (the

Day of Atonement), which is ordained by the Torah as an annual Holy Day

(Leviticus 16:29-34), would have had to be celebrated by the Israelites only

the very first time after the giving of the Torah at Mt. Sinai, had they used one

of those “super” sacrificial offerings that could atone for sins of the future.

The claim by the author of Hebrews, that there are no more sin offerings

required following the death of Jesus, is false for other reasons as well:

 The Second Temple stood in Jerusalem for nearly 40 years following the death of

Jesus, during which time literally thousands of animals were offered as sacrifices

of all sorts, including sin and guilt offerings, as prescribed by the Torah.

 The Hebrew Bible contains prophecies about the building of the Third Temple in

the messianic era, and of the resumption of the sacrificial system at that time. All

the types of sacrificial offerings described in the Hebrew Bible will be made on the

sacrificial altar [חַ בֵּזְמִ (mizBE'ah)] in the Temple, including both the טּאתָחַ and

םָאָ sacrificial offerings. In other words, the sacrificial system, which has been

in a state of suspension since the year 70 C.E., when the Romans destroyed the

Second Temple, will be completely restored in the messianic era:

Ezekiel 43:21-22 – And you shall take the bull of the sin offering, and he [the priest]

shall burn it at the edge of the Temple, outside the Sanctuary. (22) And on the

second day you shall offer an unblemished he-goat for a sin offering, and they [the

priests] shall purify the altar as they purified it with the bull. [See also: Isaiah 56:7;

Jeremiah 33:17-18; Ezekiel 40:39,46-47, 41:42, 42:13, 43:13,15,18-19,22,25-27,

44:27,29, 45:17,19,22-23,25, 46:20, 47:1; Zechariah 14:21.]


 According to the New Testament, God’s “only begotten son” died on the cross

for the sins of mankind, and all who accept this belief are “saved” (i.e., get

salvation) and will go to heaven:

Romans 5:8-11(KJV) – (8) But God commendeth his love toward us, in that, while we

were yet sinners, Christ died for us. (9) Much more then, being now justified by his

blood, we shall be saved from wrath through him. (10) For if, when we were enemies,

we were reconciled to God by the death of his Son, much more, being reconciled, we

shall be saved by his life.(11) And not only so, but we also joy in God through our Lord

Jesus Christ, by whom we have now received the atonement. [See also Acts 10:43;

1Corinthians 15:3; 1Peter 3:18.]

 The Hebrew Bible strictly prohibits (human) vicarious atonement, and

mandates that everyone is responsible for his or her own sins:

Deuteronomy 24:16 – Fathers shall not be put to death because of children, nor shall

children be put to death for fathers; each person shall be put to death for his own sin.

[See also Exodus 32:31-33; Numbers 35:33.]


 According to the New Testament, Jesus was “God manifest in the flesh” (this

would make it a human sacrifice):

Romans 8:3(KJV) – For what the law could not do, in that it was weak through the flesh,

God sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, and for sin, condemned sin in

the flesh: [See also 1Timothy 3:16; 1John 4:2.]

 The Hebrew Bible strictly prohibits human sacrifices. The concept of human

sacrifices to a deity is foreign to Judaism. Human sacrifice is a pagan rite:

Leviticus 18:21 – And you shall not give any of your offspring to pass through the fire

for Molech, and shall not profane the name of your God; I am the Lord. [See also

Deuteronomy 18:10; Jeremiah 7:31, 19:32; Ezekiel 23:37-39.] [2]

Has it occured to you that:

A) Nowhere in the Tanach does it say to believe in mashiach “or else”
B) Nowhere in the Tanach does it say that mashiach will be a hybrid god-man.
C) Nowhere in the Tanach does it say that mashiach will fulfill the law and replace it with a law of messiah.
D) Nowhere in Tanach does it say the mashiach will sacrifice himself for the sins of the world for all time.
E) Nowhere in Tanach does it say that a human sacrifice is permitted.
F) Nowhere in Tanach does it say that human vicarious atonement is permitted.
G) Nowhere in Tanach does it say that it is permissable to crown king mashiach prior to his fulfillment of ALL the messianic duties.
H) No where in Tanach does it ever say that G-d has three personages or “Triune”

Had G-d chose to teach such things, He would have EXPLICTLY and plainly said so. Just as He explictly gave us details on what is a kosher animal, how to sacrifice an animal, matters of family purity etc…When Hashem gave the law at Sinai, he was silent on all matters that Christians claim, such as G-d’s nature, form and the personage of messiah.

Hashem isnt going to then, 1500 years into the future say, I told you could do the law (Deut 30) but you CANT! I told you I was alone….but I’m NOT! I actually have a son….and he is Me! and even though I told you NOT to sacrifice your sons and daughters, like the baal worhsipers….I am going to sacrifice my human son….who is really me.

I will kill him (myself) on a wooden stick by suffocation. He will not be required to be slaughtered per the Torah, his blood not sprinkled on the altar, his fat and ofal not burned and in fact, he will be placed in a tomb, alone and I will raise him (myself)…even though I never taught you any of this…you must accept it or be thrown into the pits of hell.

These are obviously BIG, HUGE concepts that had they been part of Hashems revelation to mankind, would have been given at Sinai. Otherwise, as Christians have done, they have made G-d a liar (G-d forbid) who decieves His people and who changes the paradigm midstream.

This is not the G-d of the Tanach. The Christian paradigm in the god of Rome….everyone of the new aspects of the Gospel can be found in Grecco-Roman paganism but NOT in Jewish doctrine.

Eating a god-man’s flesh and drinking his blood…pagan.
A hybrid god-man….pagan.
A virgin birth….pagan.
A resurrected savior…pagan.
Miracles by the god-man…pagan.”

Only through eisegesis (or a hammer) can you shoe-horn this paganism into the Tanach.

Sources: [1]


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3500 Years of Persecution

3500 Years of Persecutions

3500 years of persecution. Yet, the Jews survived. Persecution of Jews has occurred on numerous occasions and at widely different geographical locations. As well as being a major component in Jewish history, it has significantly impacted the general history and social development of the countries and societies in which the persecuted Jews lived.

Jewish Persecution – History of AntiSemitism

250 C.E. – Canhage – Expulsion
224 C.E. – Italy – Forced Conversion
325 C.E. – Jerusalem – Expulsion
351 C.E – Persia – Book Burning
357 C.E. – Italy – Property Confiscation
379 C.E. – Milan – Synagogue Burning
415 C.E. – Alexandria – Expulsion
418 C.E. – Minorca – Forced Conversion
469 C.E. – Ipahan – Holocaust
489 C.E. – Antioch – Synagogue Burning
506 C.E. – Daphne – Synagogue Burning
519 C.E. – Ravenna – Synagogue Burning
554 C.E. – Diocese of Clement (France) – Expulsion
561 C.E. – Diocese of Uzes (France) – Expulsion
582 C.E – Merovingia – Forced Conversion
612 C.E. – Visigoth Spain – Expulsion
628 C.E. – Byzantium – Forced Conversion
629 C.E. – Merovingia – Forced Conversion
633 C.E. – Toledo – Forced Conversion
638 C.E. – Toledo – Stake Burnings
642 C.E. – Visigothic Empire – Expulsion
653 C.E. – Toledo – Expulsion
681 C.E. – Spain – Forced Conversion
693 C.E. – Toledo – Jews Enslaved
722 C.E. – Byzantium – Judaism Outlawed
855 C.E. – Italy – Expulsion
876 C.E. – Sens – Expulsion
897 C.E. – Narbonne – Land Confiscation
945 C.E. – Venice – Ban on Sea Travel
1009 C.E. – Orleans – Massacre
1012 C.E. – Rouen, – Limoges & Rome Massacre
1012 C.E. – Mayence – Expulsion
1021 C.E. – Rome – Jews Burned Alive
1063 C.E. – Spain – Massacre
1095 C.E. – Lorraine – Massacre
1096 C.E. – Northern France & Germany – 1/3 of Jewish Population Massacred
1096 C.E. – Hungary – Massacre
1096 C.E. – Ralisbon – Massacre
1099 C.E. – Jerusalem – Jews Burned Alive
1100 C.E. – Kiev – Pogrom
1140 C.E. – Germany – Massacres
1146 C.E. – Rhine Valley – Massacre
1147 C.E. – Wurzburg – Massacre
1147 C.E. – Belitz (Germany) – Jews Burned Alive
1147 C.E. – Carenton, Ramenu & Sully (France) – Massacres
1171 C.E. – Blois – Stake Burnings
1181 C.E. – France – Expulsion
1181 C.E. – England – Property Confiscation
1188 C.E. – London & York – Mob Attacks
1190 C.E. – Norfolk – Jews Burned Alive
1191 C.E. – Bray (France) – Jews Burned Alive
1195 C.E. – France – Property Confiscation
1209 C.E. – Beziers – Massacre
1212 C.E. – Spain – Rioting and blood bath against the Jews of Toledo.
1215 C.E. – Rome – Lateran Council of Rome decrees that Jews must wear the “badge of shame” in all Christian countries. Jews are denied all public sector employment, and are burdened with extra taxes.
1215 C.E. – Toulouse (France) – Mass Arrests
1218 C.E. – England – Jews Forced to Wear Badges
1231 C.E. – Rome – Inquisition Established
1236 C.E. – France – Forced Conversion/Massacre
1239 C.E. – London – Massacre & Property Confiscation
1240 C.E. – Austria – Property confiscation. Jews either imprisoned, converted, expelled, or burned.
1240 C.E. – France – Talmud Confiscated
1240 C.E. – England – Book Burning
1240 C.E. – Spain – Forced Conversion
1242 C.E. – Paris – Talmud Burned
1244 C.E. – Oxford – Mob Attacks
1255 C.E. – England – Blood libel in Lincoln results in the burning / torture of many Jews & public hangings.
1261 C.E. – Canterbury – Mob Attacks
1262 C.E. – London – Mob Attacks
1264 C.E. – London – Mob Attacks
1264 C.E. – Germany – Council of Vienna declares that all Jews must wear a “pointed dunce cap.” Thousands murdered.
1267 C.E. – Vienna – Jews Forced to Wear Horned Hats
1270 C.E. – Weissenberg, Magdeburg, Arnstadt, Coblenz, Singzig, and Erfurt – Jews Burned Alive
1270 C.E. – England -The libel of the “counterfeit coins” – all Jewish men, women and children in England imprisoned. Hundreds are hung.
1276 C.E. – Bavaria- Expulsion
1278 C.E. – Genoa (Spain) – Mob Attacks
1279 C.E. – Hungary & Poland – The Council of Offon denies Jews the right to all civic positions. The Jews of Hungary & Poland are forced to wear the “red badge of shame.”
1283 C.E. – Mayence & Bacharach – Mob Attacks
1285 C.E. – Munich – Jews Burned Alive
1290 C.E. – England – King Edward I issues an edict banishing all Jews from England. Many drowned.
1291 C.E. – France – The Jewish refugees from England are promptly expelled from France.
1292 C.E. – Italy – Forced conversions & expulsion of the Italian Jewish community.
1298 C.E. – Germany – The libel of the “Desecrated Host” is perpetrated against the Jews of Germany. Approximately 150 Jewish communities undergo forced conversion.
1298 C.E. – Franconia, Bavaria & Austria – Reindfel’s Decree is propagated against the Jews of Franconia and Bavarai. Riots against these Jewish communities, as well as those in Austria, result in the massacre of 100,000 Jews over a six-month period.
1306 C.E. – France – Expulsion
1308 C.E. – Strasbourg – Jews Burned Alive
1320 C.E. – Toulouse & Perpigon – 120 Communities Massacred & Talmud Burned
1321 C.E. – Teruel – Public Executions
1328 C.E. – Estella – 5,000 Jews Slaughtered
1348 C.E. – France & Spain – Jews Burned Alive
1348 C.E. – Switzerland – Expulsion
1349 C.E. – Worms, Strasbourg, Oppenheim, Mayence, Erfurt, Bavaria & Swabia – Jews Burned Alive
1349 C.E. – Heilbronn (Germany) – Expulsion
1349 C.E. – Hungary – Expulsion
1354 C.E. – Castile (Spain) – 12,000 Jews Slaughtered
1368 C.E. – Toledo – 8,000 Jews Slaughtered
1370 C.E. – Majorca., Penignon & Barcelona – Mob Attack
1377 C.E. – Huesca (Spain) – Jews Burned Alive
1380 C.E. – Paris – Mob Attack
1384 C.E. – Nordlingen – Mass Murder
1388 C.E. – Strasbourg – Expulsion
1389 C.E. – Prague – Mass Slaughter & Book Burning
1391 C.E. – Castille, Toledo, Madrid, Seville, Cordova, Cuenca & Barcelona – Forced Conversions & Mass Murder
1394 C.E. – Germany – Expulsion
1394 C.E. – France – Expulsion
1399 C.E. – Posen (Poland) – Jews Burned Alive
1400 C.E. – Prague – Stake Burnings
1407 C.E. – Cracow – Mob Attack
1415 C.E. – Rome – Talmud Confiscated
1422 C.E. – Austria – Jews Burned Alive
1422 C.E. – Austria – Expulsion
1424 C.E. – Fribourg & Zurich – Expulsion
1426 C.E. – Cologne – Expulsion
1431 C.E. – Southern Germany – Jews Burned Alive
1432 C.E. – Savory – Expulsion
1438 C.E. – Mainz – Expulsion
1439 C.E. – Augsburg – Expulsion
1449 C.E. – Toledo – Public Torture &. Burnings
1456 C.E. – Bavaria – Expulsion
1453 C.E. – Franconia – Expulsion
1453 C.E. – Breslau – Expulsion
1454 C.E. – Wurzburg – Expulsion
1463 C.E. – Cracow – Mob Attack
1473 C.E. – Andalusia – Mob Attack
1480 C.E. – Venice – Jews Burned Alive
1481 C.E. – Seville – Stake Burnings
1484 C.E. – Cuidad Real, Guadalupe, Saragossa & Teruel – Jews Burned Alive
1485 C.E. – Vincenza (Italy) – Expulsion
1486 C.E. – Toledo – Jews Burned Alive
1488 C.E. – Toledo – Stake Burnings
1490 C.E. – Toledo – Public Executions
1491 C.E. – Astorga – Public Torture & Execution
1492 C.E. – Spain – Expulsion
1495 C.E. – Lithuania – Expulsion
1497 C.E. – Portugal – Expulsion
1499 C.E. – Germany – Expulsion
1506 C.E. – Lisbon – Mob Attack
1510 C.E. – Berlin – Public Torture & Execution
1514 C.E. – Strasbourg – Expulsion
1519 C.E. – Regensburg – Expulsion
1539 C.E. – Cracow & Portugal – Stake Burnings
1540 C.E. – Naples – Expulsion
1542 C.E. – Bohemia – Expulsion
1550 C.E. – Genoa – Expulsion
1551 C.E. – Bavaria – Expulsion
1555 C.E. – Pesaro – Expulsion
1556 C.E. – Sokhachev (Poland) – Public Torture & Execution
1559 C.E. – Austria – Expulsion
1561 C.E. – Prague – Expulsion
1567 C.E. – Wurzburg – Expulsion
1569 C.E. – Papal States – Expulsion
1571 C.E. – Brandenburg – Expulsion
1582 C.E. – Netherlands – Expulsion
1593 C.E. – Brunswick – Expulsion
1597 C.E. – Cremona, Pavia & Lodi – Expulsion
1614 C.E. – Frankfort – Expulsion
1615 C.E. – Worms – Expulsion
1619 C.E. – Kiev – Expulsion
1635 C.E. – Vilna – Mob Attack
1637 C.E. – Cracow – Public Torture & Execution
1647 C.E. – Lisbon – Jews Burned Alive
1648 C.E. – Poland – 1/3 of Jewry Slaughtered
1649 C.E. – Ukraine – Expulsion
1649 C.E. – Hamburg – Expulsion
1652 C.E. – Lisbon – Stake Burnings
1654 C.E. – Little Russia – Expulsion
1656 C.E. – Lithuania – Expulsion
1660 C.E. – Seville – Jews Burned Alive
1663 C.E. – Cracow – Public Torture &. Execution
1664 C.E. – Lemberg – Mob Attack
1669 C.E. – Oran (North Africa) – Expulsion
1670 C.E. – Vienna – Expulsion
1671 C.E. – Minsk – Mob Attacks
1681 C.E. – Vilna – Mob Attacks
1682 C.E. – Cracow – Mob Attacks
1687 C.E. – Posen – Mob Attacks
1712 C.E. – Sandomir – Expulsion
1727 C.E. – Russia – Expulsion
1738 C.E. – Wurtemburg – Expulsion
1740 C.E. – Liule Russia – Expulsion
1744 C.E. – Bohemia – Expulsion
1744 C.E. – Livonia – Expulsion
1745 C.E. – Moravia – Expulsion
1753 C.E. – Kovad (Lithuania) – Expulsion
1757 C.E. – Kamenetz – Talmud Burning
1761 C.E. – Bordeaux – Expulsion
1768 C.E. – Kiev – 3,000 Jews Slaughtered
1772 C.E. – Russia – Expulsion
1775 C.E. – Warsaw – Expulsion
1789 C.E. – Alsace – Expulsion
1801 C.E. – Bucharest – Mob Attack
1804 C.E. – Russian Villages – Expulsion
1808 C.E. – Russian Countryside – Expulsion
1815 C.E. – Lubeck & Bremen – Expulsion
1820 C.E. – Bremes – Expulsion
1843 C.E. – Austria & Prussia – Expulsion
1850 C.E. – New York City – 500 People, Led by Police, Attacked & Wrecked Jewish Synagogue
1862 C.E. – Area under General Grant’s Jurisdiction in the United States Expulsion
1866 C.E. – Galatz (Romania) – Expulsion
1871 C.E. – Odena – Mob Attack
1887 C.E. – Slovakia – Mob Attacks
1897 C.E. – Kantakuzenka (Russia) – Mob Attacks
1898 C.E. – Rennes (France) – Mob Attack
1899 C.E. – Nicholayev – Mob Attack
1900 C.E. – Konitz (Prussia) – Mob Attack
1902 C.E. – Poland – Widespread Pogroms
1904 C.E. – Manchuria, Kiev & Volhynia – Widespread Pogroms
1905 C.E. – Zhitomir (Yolhynia) – Mob Attacks
1919 C.E. – Bavaria – Expulsion
1915 C.E. – Georgia (U.S.A.) – Leo Frank Lynched
1919 C.E. – Prague – Wide Spread Pogroms
1920 C.E. – Munich & Breslau – Mob Attacks
1922 C.E. – Boston – MA Lawrence Lowell, President of Harvard, calls for Quota Restrictions on Jewish Admission
1926 C.E. – Uzbekistan – Pogrom
1928 C.E. – Hungary – Widespread Anti-Semitic Riots on University Campuses
1929 C.E. – Lemberg (Poland) – Mob Attacks
1930 C.E. – Berlin – Mob Attack
1933 C.E. – Bucharest – Mob Attacks
1938-45 C.E. – Europe – Holocaust

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Why Isn’t the Book of Daniel Part of the Prophets?

The difference between divine inspiration and prophecy

 Dear Rabbi,

I was reading the book of Daniel, which is filled with extraordinary and apocalyptic visions. I was amazed to learn that it is not included in the section of the Bible known as the Prophets, and that theTalmud does not even consider Daniel to have been a prophet. What am I missing?


The issue you’ve raised is certainly puzzling. But before answering it, we first have to ascertain whether Daniel himself was in fact a prophet.

On the one hand, the Talmud does explicitly state that Daniel was not a prophet.1 On the other hand, when the Talmud states that only “48 prophets and 7 prophetesses prophesied to Israel,”2the sages disagree as to whether Daniel is included in that list or not.3

What is even stranger is that the remark in the Talmud that Daniel was not a prophet is made in connection with an incident in which Daniel seems to have seen a vision, when the three official prophets who were with him did not:

“And I, Daniel, alone saw the vision, but the men who were with me did not see the vision. But a great quaking fell upon them, and they fled into hiding.”4Who were these men? Said Rabbi Yirmiyah, and some say it was Rabbi Chiya bar Abba, “They were the [prophets] Chaggai, Zechariah and Malachi. They were superior to him [Daniel], and he was superior to them. They were superior to him, in that they were prophets and he wasn’t. He was superior to them, in that he saw the vision and they did not.”5

We must therefore conclude that what distinguishes someone as a prophet is not whether he or she has visions, but something deeper and more fundamental.

While in common parlance the word “prophecy” is used to describe visions in general, in truth there are two different kinds of visions: prophecy and ruach ha-kodesh (Hebrew for “divine inspiration”). With prophecy, it is almost as if one sees the revelation, gaining an intimate familiarity with the divine, whileruach ha-kodesh is more of a detached, factual kind of knowledge, as shall be explained.

Some prophets see a vision or dream of an angel speaking to them; others see the form of a man, or may perceive that G‑dHimself is speaking to them. And yet others don’t see anything; they only hear the prophetic words addressed to them. The prophet may experience that which is heard with the greatest possible intensity, just as a person may hear or perceive a storm or an earthquake. Or the prophet may hear the prophecy as ordinary speech.6

There are many different levels and types of prophecies,7 but the common denominator between them is the way the prophet’s intellect merges with the divine and transcends the normal powers of the intellect. Thus, when prophets are granted an intimate familiarity with the level of divinity that has been revealed to them, their bodies weaken and tremble and their regular senses become confused or paralyzed, or they simply fall asleep. It is for this reason that we sometimes find that the prophet is referred to in the scriptures as one who is acting irrationally.8 This is not because the prophet lacks wisdom. On the contrary, he or she is connected to G‑d’s wisdom, which transcends human intellect. Rather, it is because during prophecy, the people observing the prophet perceive only the void of what they consider to be rational intellect; they do not, however, perceive how the prophet’s mind has transcended the normal human intellect and is merged with the divine.9

Those who have ruach ha-kodesh, however, feel as if the divine spirit came upon them. With it they receive a new power that encourages them either to take a specific action, speak wisdom, compose hymns, exhort their fellow men or discuss political or theological problems. All this is done while the one with ruach ha-kodesh is in full possession of his or her senses.10

It is true that the inspiration may sometimes come in the form of a dream, as it does with prophets. There is, however, a difference between the visions experienced by prophets in a dream and those that come through ruach ha-kodesh, as was the case with Daniel.

The difference can be seen in how prophets and those inspired by ruach ha-kodesh refer to their visions and dreams. When prophets prophesy, they are informed that the vision was a prophecy, and upon awaking, they state decidedly that it was a prophetic experience.11 For example, when Jacob awakened from his prophetic dream of the angels ascending and descending the ladder, he did not say that it was a dream; rather, he proclaimed (Genesis 28:16), “How awesome is this place! This is none other than the house of G‑d, and this is the gate of heaven.” And he later referred to the incident by saying (ibid. 48:3), “Almighty G‑d appeared to me in Luz, in the land ofCanaan, and He blessed me.”

Daniel, however, used the language of “visions” to describe his experiences, even after he saw angels and received knowledge through them, as we can see from the following verses from the Book of Daniel:

  1. “Then the secret was revealed to Daniel in the vision of the night” (2:19).
  2. “In the first year of Belshazzar, the king of Babylon, Daniel saw a dream . . .” (7:1).
  3. “. . . and the visions of my mind terrified me” (7:15).

So while it is true that Daniel had visions, they were on the level of ruach ha-kodesh, divine inspiration. Therefore, the book of Daniel was made part of the biblical section of Ketuvim, the Writings or Hagiographa, and not the Neviim, Prophets.12

When discussing the difference between prophecy and ruach ha-kodesh, a distinction needs to be made between the levels of the divine revelation (how high in the chain of emanation between G‑d and man the individual reaches) and the quality of the revelation (how intimate and clear the revelation is to the individual).

While the quality of the revelation is much greater in prophecy than in ruach ha-kodesh, the level of revelation reached throughruach ha-kodesh can be much higher than that reached through prophecy. Since the prophet gains an intimate knowledge and familiarity with the level of divinity that is being revealed to him or her, to the point that we say that the prophet “saw G‑d,” there is a greater limit to how high of a level of emanation the prophet can see, as G‑d told Moses, “No man can see me and live.”13“

With ruach ha-kodesh, however, it is not as if one actually “saw” or “heard” something; rather, it is similar to perceiving something with the mind. Therefore, the recipient of this ruach ha-kodeshmay sometimes be privy to greater knowledge of the myriad levels and layers of divine emanation than even the prophet. For the knowledge received through ruach ha-kodesh is similar to the cataloging of facts, the names of the different spiritual worlds and the rules by which they interact. But in the end, he knows only the fact of their existence (yediat ha-metziut), but he has no real appreciation of their true nature, for he has never “seen it.”

This is what the Talmud means when it proclaims that “a sage is superior to a prophet.”14 For the sage, through ruach ha-kodesh, can be privy to levels of insight that surpass that which the prophets are able to envision tangibly. And while the sage grasps only facts, nevertheless it is divinely inspired knowledge of the facts.15

The levels of prophetic revelation experienced throughout a prophet’s lifetime are, however, not static. The same prophet can at times experience different levels of prophecy, ruach ha-kodesh, or both.16 Therefore, even if Daniel had attained the level of prophecy at one point in his life,17 it was not in relation to the book of Daniel, which is therefore still considered part of the Ketuvim, the Writings.

Please see Is the Book of Daniel Authentic? and Do (Normal) Jews Believe in Prophecy?

1. Talmud, Megillah 3a.
2. Ibid., 14a. It should be noted that when the Talmud states that only 55 prophets “prophesied to Israel,” it does not mean that there were only 55 prophets. In fact, the Talmud there tells us that the number of prophets throughout Jewish history was double the number of people who left Egypt. What it means to say is that there were 55 prophets who said prophecies that have relevance for future generations and not just for their own generation.
3. See Halachot Gedolot, ch. 76; Seder Olam Rabbah, ch. 20; commentary of Rabbi Shlomo Yitzchaki, Rashi to Megillah, ibid.
4. Daniel 10:7.
5. Talmud, Megillah 3a.
6. Maimonides, Guide for the Perplexed 2:44.
7. See Guide for the Perplexed 2:45, where Maimonides enumerates nine levels of prophecy. (He actually lists eleven; however, the first two aren’t considered prophecy. Rather, they are forms of divine inspiration which are close to, and on the path to, prophecy, but they are not technically prophecy.)
8. II Kings 9:11.
9. See Maimonides, Mishneh Torah, Hilchot Yesodei Hatorah 7:2; commentary by Rabbi David Kimchi (Radak) to I Samuel 19:24; Rabbi Menachem Mendel of Lubavitch (Tzemach Tzedek),Ohr HaTorah, Sukkot, pp. 1715–7, and Derech Mitzvotecha 172b.
10. To clarify, there are in general two levels of ruach ha-kodesh. One simply inspires and moves the person to take a specific action, like rescuing a community, as is the case with the various Judges of Israel (see, for example, Judges 11:29, 14:19). The second and greater level of ruach ha-kodesh is when the person is granted divine knowledge, and may also be encouraged to speak or write about it. When we speak of “factual knowledge,” we are referring to the higher level of ruach ha-kodesh, which deals with knowledge (for more on these two levels, see Guide for the Perplexed, ibid.).
11. We do find that the prophet Samuel, when he heard a G‑dly voice for the first time, thought it was his mentor, the high priest Eli, calling him. That was because Samuel did not know yet that G‑d addressed prophets in this fashion. It was in the course of that episode that Samuel learned that it was a prophecy. See Guide for the Perplexed 2:44.
12. Guide for the Perplexed, ibid.
13. Exodus 33:20.
14. Talmud, Bava Batra 12a.
15. Tanya, Igeret Hakodesh, Epistle 19; Derech Mitzvotecha 172b–173a.
16. See Guide for the Perplexed, ibid.; Derech Mitzvotecha, ibid.
17. See Rashi to Megillah 3a.
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Isaiah 2:22

“So do you think that those who reject Jesus are supernaturally blinded – how about those who accept him? How did their eyes “get opened”? And how about people who accept Jesus – but then come to the recognition that they were hoodwinked – and leave him – what “blinded” them?”

Isaiah 2:22

Many Christians have a difficult time understanding why it is that Jews view their faith in Jesus as idolatrous. Christians assert that Jesus is “one and the same” as the God of Israel. How could veneration of Jesus be considered idolatry?

It may come as a surprise to some Christians if they were to realize that many Jews have a difficult time understanding Christians. After everything is said and done, Christianity is pointing to a man, and calling him “god”. What else is there to discuss?

This article is written in an effort to help Christians see things from a Jewish perspective.

Imagine the following scenario.

The Messianic era is here. God is revealed to all mankind. Every human being clearly sees that the One Creator of heaven and earth is the only true power. Everyone understands that every facet of existence is just an expression of His will and His love. All the nations recognize that every bit of adoration that the human heart can generate belongs only to the Almighty God who called the universe into existence.

And Jesus is not there. The man from Nazareth is nowhere to be seen.

What will the Christian then feel about the relationship he shared with this man? How will they view all the adoration that they were persuaded to pour out towards that individual?

The fact that you could imagine this scenario, should tell you that Jesus is NOT one and the same with the Creator of heaven and earth. The fact that this scenario is hypothetically possible should help you separate between Jesus on the one hand and the God of Israel on the other.

This scenario is not just a hypothetical possibility. If you believe those God fearing Jews whose words are immortalized in the Jewish Scriptures, you will realize that this scenario was at the heart of their vision for the future.

I will provide a list of Scriptural references for you to study. Please bear in mind that when these words were originally written, no one had heard of Jesus. When the Jewish prophets penned their words, the concept: “trinity” – was not yet invented. Please realize that for a Jew who would have read these words before the advent of Christianity, the words “God”, “Lord”, and “Almighty” would mean one thing and one thing only – The One Creator of heaven and earth.

Deuteronomy 32:39, Ezekiel 37:28, 38:1-48:35, Isaiah 2:17, 24:23, 40:9, 52:7,10, 60:19,  Joel 4:16-17, Micah 7:15-18, Zephaniah 3:9, Zechariah 14:9, Psalm 47:3, 83:19, 86:10, 97:6-9, 102:16, 148:13,

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Four ways Christianity and other world religions deceive their followers

Article: Four ways Christianity and other world religions deceive their followers

Originally posted on Daily Minyan:

By Rabbi Moshe Ben-Chaim

The Flaws of Christianity and [other] Religions

Should we allow our lives to be guided by what is popular? Are we to simply follow the crowd, without questioning our beliefs? As all religions oppose each other, all religions cannot be God’s word.


Our souls are at stake, and our limited time here in Earth demands that we take stock in what our actions and beliefs must be. Are we living life properly, what our Creator asks, what is truly best for ourselves? We must realize the false notions we harbor, be we Jew or Gentile. It is imperative that we all question these popular notions and not blindly coast through life, losing what could be an inspiring and enlightening existence. What a tragic loss of God’s gift of life to each of us, if we do not engage our intelligence, given to man and no other…

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Rosh Hashanah holiday is called Yom Teruah or the Feast of Trumpets

Rosh Hashanah 2014 begins in the evening of

Wednesday, September 24

and ends in the evening of

Friday, September 26
Shofar Callin’ connects the story Jews read on the New Year — when God tells Abraham to sacrifice his son Isaac — with the ritual blowing of the Shofar, or ram’s horn. What’s the connection?

Find out how the Jewish New Year is WAY more than just a day to spend in synagogue, and how the call of the Shofar can be spiritually meaningful in your daily life.

One of the clearest indications that Christianity is off base in its insistence on the centrality of blood sacrifices is that none of the prophets speaks about it. There isn’t one instance in the prophetic books where the Jewish people are told that in order to get right with G-d they need to get covered by the blood. If that’s the case, what is the fundamental teaching of the Tanach on the issue of atonement? What theme is reiterated time and again by the holy prophets in the Jewish Bible?
“That every man will turn from his evil way, then I will forgive their iniquity and their sin.” (Jeremiah 36:3).
“Let the wicked forsake his way, and the unrighteous man his thoughts, and let him return to the L-rd, and He will have compassion on him; and to our G-d, for He will abundantly pardon.” (Isaiah 55:7).
“I acknowledged my sin to You, and my iniquity I did not hide; I said, `I will confess my transgressions to the L-rd’, and You did forgive the guilt of my sin.” (Psalm 32:5).
“And if My people who are called by My name humble themselves and pray, and seek My face and turn from their wicked ways, then I will hear from heaven, will forgive their sin, and will heal their land.” (II Chronicles 7:14). “But if the wicked man turns from all his sins which he has committed and observes all My statutes and practices justice and righteousness, he shall surely live; he shall not die. All his transgressions which he has committed will not be remembered against him; because of the righteousness which he has practiced he shall live…When a wicked man turns away from his wickedness which he has committed and practices justice and righteousness, he will save his life…Repent and turn away from all your transgressions, so that iniquity may not become a stumbling block to you (Ezekiel 18:21- 22,27,30).
“By lovingkindness and truth iniquity is atoned for…” (Proverbs 16:6).
“If you return to G-d you will be restored; if you remove unrighteousness far from your tent…then you will delight in G-d…” (Job 22:23-27).
“Depart from evil, and do good, so you will abide forever.” (Psalm 37:27, cf. Ezekiel 33, Zechariah 1:3, Jeremiah 26:13).
The central teaching of the Bible is that only a break with our past and a sincere turning in repentance can restore our relationships with G-d. If I go off the path, I have to put myself back on track, and G-d will forgive me. Even when sacrifices were offered, they in and of themselves didn’t effect atonement. The sacrifice was part of the process, it helped bring us to the core of atonement which is achieved by TESHUVAH, returning to G-d by forsaking our evil ways and praying for forgiveness. One of the main teachings of the prophets was to chide Jewish people who thought that sacrifices were the essential element of atonement:
“What are your multiplied sacrifices to Me? says the L-rd. I have had enough of burnt offerings of rams, and the fat of fed cattle. And I take no pleasure in the blood of bulls, lambs, or goats…Wash yourselves, make yourselves clean; remove the evil of your deeds from My sight. Cease to do evil, Learn to do good; seek justice, reprove the ruthless, defend the orphan, plead for the widow. Come let us reason together says the L-rd, `Though your sins are as scarlet, they will be white as snow; though they be red like crimson, they will be like wool, if you consent and obey…” (Isaiah 1:11-18).
“The sacrifice of the wicked is an abomination to the L-rd.” (Proverbs 15:8).
“To do righteousness and justice is more acceptable to the L-rd than sacrifice.” (Proverbs 21:3). “For I delight in loyalty rather than sacrifice, and in the knowledge of G-d rather than burnt offerings.” (Hoseah 6:6).
“Has the L-rd as great a delight in burnt offerings and sacrifices as in obeying the voice of the L-rd? Behold, to obey is better than sacrifice, and to hearken more than the fat of rams.” (I Samuel 15:22).
“With what shall I come to the L-rd, and bow myself before the G-d on high? Shall I come to Him with burnt offerings, with yearling calves? Does the L-rd take delight in thousands of rams, in ten thousand rivers of oil? Shall I present my firstborn for my rebellious acts, the fruit of my body for the sin of my soul? He has told you, O man, what is good; and what does the L-rd require of you but to do justice, to love kindness, and to walk humbly with your G-d.” (Micah 6:6-8,cf. Amos 5:22- 24, Jeremiah 7, Psalm 69:31-32).
Since repentance, and not blood is the Biblical form of atonement, we now understand how in I Kings 8, Solomon explained that even if the Jewish people don’t have access to the Temple, they still have access to G-d. This will illuminate a famous story found in the book of Jonah. G-d sends Jonah to the evil city of Ninveh to warn them of their impending destruction. Jonah doesn’t come into the city and tell the people that unless they begin offering sacrifices they are doomed. Their response to his warnings is to repent: they fast, pray, and turn from their evil. What is G-d’s response?
“When G-d saw their deeds that they turned from their wicked way, then G-d relented concerning the calamity which He had declared He would bring upon them, and He did not do it.” (Jonah 3:10).
In similar fashion, Daniel advised king Nebuchadnezzar on how to atone for his transgressions:
“Therefore, O king, may my advice be pleasing to you: Redeem your sins by doing righteousness, and your iniquities by showing mercy to the poor.” (Daniel 4:27).
This principle will also help explain a passage in the book of Hoseah. Hoseah was a prophet to the 10 northern tribes in the kingdom of Israel during a time when there was a civil war going on between them and the two tribes of the kingdom of Judah in the south. Because of the strife, the tribes up north couldn’t get to the Temple in Jerusalem to offer sacrifices. Did this leave them with no way of atoning for their sins? The prophet advises:
“Return, O Israel, to the L-rd your G-d, For you have stumbled because of your iniquity. Take words with you and return to the L-rd. Say to Him, `Take away all iniquity, and receive us graciously, for we will render as bullocks the offerings of our lips’.” (Hoseah 14:1-2).
We are able to approach G-d directly with prayer, which is possible at all times; and G-d assures us that sincere prayer can achieve forgiveness for our sins:
“Deliver me from bloodguiltiness, O L-rd, the G-d of my salvation. And my tongue shall sing aloud of Your righteousness. O L-rd, open my lips, and my mouth shall show forth Your praise. For You do not delight in burnt offerings. The sacrifices of G-d are a broken spirit, a broken and contrite heart. These, O G-d, You will not despise.” (Psalms 51:14-17, re:II Samuel 12:13).
“I will praise the name of G-d with a song, and will magnify Him with thanksgiving. This shall please the L-rd better than an ox or bullock that has horns and hoofs.” (Psalm 69:30-31).
“For You, L-rd, are good, and ready to forgive, and abundant in lovingkindness to all who call upon You. Give ear, O L-rd to my prayer, and give heed to the voice of my supplications.” (Psalm 86:5-6).
“And listen to the supplications of Your servant and of Your people Israel, when they pray toward this place; hear from heaven Your dwelling place, hear and forgive.” (II Chronicles 6:21).
~Rabbi Michael Skobac
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How Can a Child of Abraham Behead Anyone?



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